I. SQL 指令

Last updated 6 months ago

本部分包含 PostgreSQL 支援的 SQL 指令的參考訊息。一般而言,「SQL」是指語言;內容包含了有關各標準的一致性和相容性。

連結將會連結至 PostgreSQL 官方使用手冊,本手冊連結請使用左側目錄。

Table of Contents

ABORT — abort the current transaction ALTER AGGREGATE — change the definition of an aggregate function ALTER COLLATION — change the definition of a collation ALTER CONVERSION — change the definition of a conversion ALTER DATABASE — change a database ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES — define default access privileges ALTER DOMAIN — change the definition of a domain ALTER EVENT TRIGGER — change the definition of an event trigger ALTER EXTENSION — change the definition of an extension ALTER FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER — change the definition of a foreign-data wrapper ALTER FOREIGN TABLE — change the definition of a foreign table ALTER FUNCTION — change the definition of a function ALTER GROUP — change role name or membership ALTER INDEX — change the definition of an index ALTER LANGUAGE — change the definition of a procedural language ALTER LARGE OBJECT — change the definition of a large object ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW — change the definition of a materialized view ALTER OPERATOR — change the definition of an operator ALTER OPERATOR CLASS — change the definition of an operator class ALTER OPERATOR FAMILY — change the definition of an operator family ALTER POLICY — change the definition of a row level security policy ALTER PUBLICATION — change the definition of a publication ALTER ROLE — change a database role ALTER RULE — change the definition of a rule ALTER SCHEMA — change the definition of a schema ALTER SEQUENCE — change the definition of a sequence generator ALTER SERVER — change the definition of a foreign server ALTER STATISTICS — change the definition of an extended statistics object ALTER SUBSCRIPTION — change the definition of a subscription ALTER SYSTEM — change a server configuration parameter ALTER TABLE — change the definition of a table ALTER TABLESPACE — change the definition of a tablespace ALTER TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION — change the definition of a text search configuration ALTER TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARY — change the definition of a text search dictionary ALTER TEXT SEARCH PARSER — change the definition of a text search parser ALTER TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATE — change the definition of a text search template ALTER TRIGGER — change the definition of a trigger ALTER TYPE — change the definition of a type ALTER USER — change a database role ALTER USER MAPPING — change the definition of a user mapping ALTER VIEW — change the definition of a view ANALYZE — collect statistics about a database BEGIN — start a transaction block CHECKPOINT — force a write-ahead log checkpoint CLOSE — close a cursor CLUSTER — cluster a table according to an index COMMENT — define or change the comment of an object COMMIT — commit the current transaction COMMIT PREPARED — commit a transaction that was earlier prepared for two-phase commit COPY — copy data between a file and a table CREATE ACCESS METHOD — define a new access method CREATE AGGREGATE — define a new aggregate function CREATE CAST — define a new cast CREATE COLLATION — define a new collation CREATE CONVERSION — define a new encoding conversion CREATE DATABASE — create a new database CREATE DOMAIN — define a new domain CREATE EVENT TRIGGER — define a new event trigger CREATE EXTENSION — install an extension CREATE FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER — define a new foreign-data wrapper CREATE FOREIGN TABLE — define a new foreign table CREATE FUNCTION — define a new function CREATE GROUP — define a new database role CREATE INDEX — define a new index CREATE LANGUAGE — define a new procedural language CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW — define a new materialized view CREATE OPERATOR — define a new operator CREATE OPERATOR CLASS — define a new operator class CREATE OPERATOR FAMILY — define a new operator family CREATE POLICY — define a new row level security policy for a table CREATE PUBLICATION — define a new publication CREATE ROLE — define a new database role CREATE RULE — define a new rewrite rule CREATE SCHEMA — define a new schema CREATE SEQUENCE — define a new sequence generator CREATE SERVER — define a new foreign server CREATE STATISTICS — define extended statistics CREATE SUBSCRIPTION — define a new subscription CREATE TABLE — define a new table CREATE TABLE AS — define a new table from the results of a query CREATE TABLESPACE — define a new tablespace CREATE TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION — define a new text search configuration CREATE TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARY — define a new text search dictionary CREATE TEXT SEARCH PARSER — define a new text search parser CREATE TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATE — define a new text search template CREATE TRANSFORM — define a new transform CREATE TRIGGER — define a new trigger CREATE TYPE — define a new data type CREATE USER — define a new database role CREATE USER MAPPING — define a new mapping of a user to a foreign server CREATE VIEW — define a new view DEALLOCATE — deallocate a prepared statement DECLARE — define a cursor DELETE — delete rows of a table DISCARD — discard session state DO — execute an anonymous code block DROP ACCESS METHOD — remove an access method DROP AGGREGATE — remove an aggregate function DROP CAST — remove a cast DROP COLLATION — remove a collation DROP CONVERSION — remove a conversion DROP DATABASE — remove a database DROP DOMAIN — remove a domain DROP EVENT TRIGGER — remove an event trigger DROP EXTENSION — remove an extension DROP FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER — remove a foreign-data wrapper DROP FOREIGN TABLE — remove a foreign table DROP FUNCTION — remove a function DROP GROUP — remove a database role DROP INDEX — remove an index DROP LANGUAGE — remove a procedural language DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW — remove a materialized view DROP OPERATOR — remove an operator DROP OPERATOR CLASS — remove an operator class DROP OPERATOR FAMILY — remove an operator family DROP OWNED — remove database objects owned by a database role DROP POLICY — remove a row level security policy from a table DROP PUBLICATION — remove a publication DROP ROLE — remove a database role DROP RULE — remove a rewrite rule DROP SCHEMA — remove a schema DROP SEQUENCE — remove a sequence DROP SERVER — remove a foreign server descriptor DROP STATISTICS — remove extended statistics DROP SUBSCRIPTION — remove a subscription DROP TABLE — remove a table DROP TABLESPACE — remove a tablespace DROP TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION — remove a text search configuration DROP TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARY — remove a text search dictionary DROP TEXT SEARCH PARSER — remove a text search parser DROP TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATE — remove a text search template DROP TRANSFORM — remove a transform DROP TRIGGER — remove a trigger DROP TYPE — remove a data type DROP USER — remove a database role DROP USER MAPPING — remove a user mapping for a foreign server DROP VIEW — remove a view END — commit the current transaction EXECUTE — execute a prepared statement EXPLAIN — show the execution plan of a statement FETCH — retrieve rows from a query using a cursor GRANT — define access privileges IMPORT FOREIGN SCHEMA — import table definitions from a foreign server INSERT — create new rows in a table LISTEN — listen for a notification LOAD — load a shared library file LOCK — lock a table MOVE — position a cursor NOTIFY — generate a notification PREPARE — prepare a statement for execution PREPARE TRANSACTION — prepare the current transaction for two-phase commit REASSIGN OWNED — change the ownership of database objects owned by a database role REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW — replace the contents of a materialized view REINDEX — rebuild indexes RELEASE SAVEPOINT — destroy a previously defined savepoint RESET — restore the value of a run-time parameter to the default value REVOKE — remove access privileges ROLLBACK — abort the current transaction ROLLBACK PREPARED — cancel a transaction that was earlier prepared for two-phase commit ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT — roll back to a savepoint SAVEPOINT — define a new savepoint within the current transaction SECURITY LABEL — define or change a security label applied to an object SELECT — retrieve rows from a table or view SELECT INTO — define a new table from the results of a query SET — change a run-time parameter SET CONSTRAINTS — set constraint check timing for the current transaction SET ROLE — set the current user identifier of the current session SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION — set the session user identifier and the current user identifier of the current session SET TRANSACTION — set the characteristics of the current transaction SHOW — show the value of a run-time parameter START TRANSACTION — start a transaction block TRUNCATE — empty a table or set of tables UNLISTEN — stop listening for a notification UPDATE — update rows of a table VACUUM — garbage-collect and optionally analyze a database VALUES — compute a set of rows