CREATE SCHEMA — define a new schema
CREATE SCHEMA schema_name [ AUTHORIZATION role_specification ] [ schema_element [ ... ] ]
CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION role_specification [ schema_element [ ... ] ]
CREATE SCHEMA IF NOT EXISTS schema_name [ AUTHORIZATION role_specification ]
CREATE SCHEMA IF NOT EXISTS AUTHORIZATION role_specification
where role_specification can be:
CREATE SCHEMAenters a new schema into the current database. The schema name must be distinct from the name of any existing schema in the current database.
A schema is essentially a namespace: it contains named objects (tables, data types, functions, and operators) whose names can duplicate those of other objects existing in other schemas. Named objects are accessed either by “qualifying” their names with the schema name as a prefix, or by setting a search path that includes the desired schema(s). A
CREATEcommand specifying an unqualified object name creates the object in the current schema (the one at the front of the search path, which can be determined with the function
CREATE SCHEMAcan include subcommands to create objects within the new schema. The subcommands are treated essentially the same as separate commands issued after creating the schema, except that if the
AUTHORIZATIONclause is used, all the created objects will be owned by that user.
The name of a schema to be created. If this is omitted, the
user_nameis used as the schema name. The name cannot begin with
pg_, as such names are reserved for system schemas.
The role name of the user who will own the new schema. If omitted, defaults to the user executing the command. To create a schema owned by another role, you must be a direct or indirect member of that role, or be a superuser.
An SQL statement defining an object to be created within the schema. Currently, only
GRANTare accepted as clauses within
CREATE SCHEMA. Other kinds of objects may be created in separate commands after the schema is created.
IF NOT EXISTS
Do nothing (except issuing a notice) if a schema with the same name already exists.
schema_elementsubcommands cannot be included when this option is used.
To create a schema, the invoking user must have the
CREATEprivilege for the current database. (Of course, superusers bypass this check.)
Create a schema:
CREATE SCHEMA myschema;
Create a schema for user
joe; the schema will also be named
CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION joe;
Create a schema named
testthat will be owned by user
joe, unless there already is a schema named
test. (It does not matter whether
joeowns the pre-existing schema.)
CREATE SCHEMA IF NOT EXISTS test AUTHORIZATION joe;
Create a schema and create a table and view within it:
CREATE SCHEMA hollywood
CREATE TABLE films (title text, release date, awards text)
CREATE VIEW winners AS
SELECT title, release FROM films WHERE awards IS NOT NULL;
Notice that the individual subcommands do not end with semicolons.
The following is an equivalent way of accomplishing the same result:
CREATE SCHEMA hollywood;
CREATE TABLE hollywood.films (title text, release date, awards text);
CREATE VIEW hollywood.winners AS
SELECT title, release FROM hollywood.films WHERE awards IS NOT NULL;
The SQL standard allows a
DEFAULT CHARACTER SETclause in
CREATE SCHEMA, as well as more subcommand types than are presently accepted by PostgreSQL.
The SQL standard specifies that the subcommands in
CREATE SCHEMAcan appear in any order. The present PostgreSQL implementation does not handle all cases of forward references in subcommands; it might sometimes be necessary to reorder the subcommands in order to avoid forward references.
According to the SQL standard, the owner of a schema always owns all objects within it. PostgreSQL allows schemas to contain objects owned by users other than the schema owner. This can happen only if the schema owner grants the
CREATEprivilege on their schema to someone else, or a superuser chooses to create objects in it.
IF NOT EXISTSoption is a PostgreSQL extension.