28.2. 統計資訊收集器

版本:11

PostgreSQL 的統計資訊收集器是一個子系統,支援收集和回報有關伺服器活動的訊息。目前,收集器可以計算對磁盤區塊和單個資料列中資料表和索引的存取。它還追踪每個資料表中的總資料列數量,以及有關每個資料表的清理和分析操作的資訊。它還可以統計對使用者定義函數的呼叫以及每個函數所花費的總時間。

PostgreSQL 也支援回報有關系統當下正在發生什麼的動態訊息,例如目前正由其他伺服器程序所執行的明確指令,以及系統中正在進行的其他連線。此功能獨立於收集器程序。

28.2.1. 統計收集設定

由於統計信息的收集會增加查詢執行的成本,因此系統可以設定收集或不收集訊息。這由通常在 postgresql.conf 中的參數控制。(有關設定參數的詳細訊息,請參閱第 19 章。)

參數 track_activities 啓用監控任何伺服器程序正在執行的指令。

參數 track_counts 控制是否收集有關資料表和索引存取的統計資訊。

參數 track_functions 可以追踪使用者自訂函數的使用情況。

參數 track_io_timing 啓用監控磁碟區塊讀取和寫入時間。

通常這些參數會在 postgresql.conf 中設定,以便它們適用於所有伺服器程序,但也可以使用 SET 指令在各個連線中啓用或停用它們。(為了防止普通使用者將其活動隱藏於管理員之外,只允許超級使用者使用 SET 變更這些參數。)

統計資訊收集器透過臨時檔案將收集的資訊傳輸到其他 PostgreSQL 程序。這些檔案儲存在參數 stats_temp_directory 所指定的目錄中,預設為 pg_stat_tmp。為了獲得更好的效能,可以將 stats_temp_directory 指向記憶體的檔案系統,從而降低物理 I/O 需求。當伺服器完全地關閉時,統計資料的永久副本將儲存在 pg_stat 子目錄中,以便可以跨伺服器重新啟動並保留統計資訊。在伺服器啟動時進行回復(例如,在立即關閉,伺服器當機和實時回復之後),將重置所有統計計數器。

28.2.2. Viewing Statistics

Table 28.1 中列出了的幾個預先定義好的檢視表,可用於顯示系統的當下的狀態。Table 28.2 中還列出了其他幾個檢視表,可用於顯示統計訊息收集的結果。進一步可以使用基礎統計函數建構自訂的檢視表,如第 28.2.3 節中所述。

使用統計訊息監控收集的資料時,重要的是要瞭解到訊息並不會立即更新。每個伺服器程序在回到閒置狀態之前會向收集器發送新的統計計數;因此,仍在進行中的查詢或事務不會對顯示的數據產生影響。此外,收集器本身每 PGSTAT_STAT_INTERVAL 毫秒最多回報一次(500毫秒,除非在編譯伺服器時更改)。因此顯示的數據是落後於實際活動的。 但是,track_activities 所收集的目前查詢資訊是最新的。

另一個要點是,當要求伺服器程序顯示任何這些統計訊息時,它首先獲取收集器程序發出的最新報告,然後繼續將此快照結果用於所有統計檢視表和函數,直到其當下該事務結束。因此,只要您繼續該事務,統計數據就會顯示靜態結果。同樣地,當在事務中首次請求任何此類資訊時,收集關於所有連線的當下查詢資訊,將會在整個事務中顯示相同的資訊。這是一個正常的功能,而不是一個錯誤,因為它允許您對統計信息執行多個查詢並且關聯結果,而不必擔心數字在您交易當下發生變化。但是,如果要查看每個查詢的新結果,請確保在任何事務區塊之外執行查詢。或者,您可以呼叫 pg_stat_clear_snapshot(),它將丟棄當下事務的統計資訊快照(如果有的話)。下次使用統計資訊時將會去獲取新的快照。

事務還可以在檢視圖 pg_stat_xact_all_tables,pg_stat_xact_sys_tables,pg_stat_xact_user_tables 和pg_stat_xact_user_functions 中查看自己的統計訊息(尚未傳遞給收集器的)。 這些數字不符合上述原則;相反地,他們在整個交易過程中不斷更新。

Table 28.1. Dynamic Statistics Views

View Name

Description

pg_stat_activity

每個伺服器程序一個資料列,顯示與該程序的當時活動相關的訊息,例如狀態和當時查詢。有關詳細訊息,請參閱 pg_stat_activity

pg_stat_replication

One row per WAL sender process, showing statistics about replication to that sender's connected standby server. See pg_stat_replication for details.

pg_stat_wal_receiver

Only one row, showing statistics about the WAL receiver from that receiver's connected server. See pg_stat_wal_receiver for details.

pg_stat_subscription

At least one row per subscription, showing information about the subscription workers. See pg_stat_subscription for details.

pg_stat_ssl

One row per connection (regular and replication), showing information about SSL used on this connection. See pg_stat_ssl for details.

pg_stat_progress_vacuum

One row for each backend (including autovacuum worker processes) running VACUUM, showing current progress. See Section 28.4.1.

Table 28.2. Collected Statistics Views

View Name

Description

pg_stat_archiver

One row only, showing statistics about the WAL archiver process's activity. See pg_stat_archiver for details.

pg_stat_bgwriter

One row only, showing statistics about the background writer process's activity. See pg_stat_bgwriter for details.

pg_stat_database

One row per database, showing database-wide statistics. See pg_stat_database for details.

pg_stat_database_conflicts

One row per database, showing database-wide statistics about query cancels due to conflict with recovery on standby servers. See pg_stat_database_conflicts for details.

pg_stat_all_tables

One row for each table in the current database, showing statistics about accesses to that specific table. See pg_stat_all_tables for details.

pg_stat_sys_tables

Same as pg_stat_all_tables, except that only system tables are shown.

pg_stat_user_tables

Same as pg_stat_all_tables, except that only user tables are shown.

pg_stat_xact_all_tables

Similar to pg_stat_all_tables, but counts actions taken so far within the current transaction (which are not yet included in pg_stat_all_tables and related views). The columns for numbers of live and dead rows and vacuum and analyze actions are not present in this view.

pg_stat_xact_sys_tables

Same as pg_stat_xact_all_tables, except that only system tables are shown.

pg_stat_xact_user_tables

Same as pg_stat_xact_all_tables, except that only user tables are shown.

pg_stat_all_indexes

One row for each index in the current database, showing statistics about accesses to that specific index. See pg_stat_all_indexes for details.

pg_stat_sys_indexes

Same as pg_stat_all_indexes, except that only indexes on system tables are shown.

pg_stat_user_indexes

Same as pg_stat_all_indexes, except that only indexes on user tables are shown.

pg_statio_all_tables

One row for each table in the current database, showing statistics about I/O on that specific table. See pg_statio_all_tables for details.

pg_statio_sys_tables

Same as pg_statio_all_tables, except that only system tables are shown.

pg_statio_user_tables

Same as pg_statio_all_tables, except that only user tables are shown.

pg_statio_all_indexes

One row for each index in the current database, showing statistics about I/O on that specific index. See pg_statio_all_indexes for details.

pg_statio_sys_indexes

Same as pg_statio_all_indexes, except that only indexes on system tables are shown.

pg_statio_user_indexes

Same as pg_statio_all_indexes, except that only indexes on user tables are shown.

pg_statio_all_sequences

One row for each sequence in the current database, showing statistics about I/O on that specific sequence. See pg_statio_all_sequences for details.

pg_statio_sys_sequences

Same as pg_statio_all_sequences, except that only system sequences are shown. (Presently, no system sequences are defined, so this view is always empty.)

pg_statio_user_sequences

Same as pg_statio_all_sequences, except that only user sequences are shown.

pg_stat_user_functions

One row for each tracked function, showing statistics about executions of that function. See pg_stat_user_functions for details.

pg_stat_xact_user_functions

Similar to pg_stat_user_functions, but counts only calls during the current transaction (which are not yet included in pg_stat_user_functions).

The per-index statistics are particularly useful to determine which indexes are being used and how effective they are.

The pg_statio_ views are primarily useful to determine the effectiveness of the buffer cache. When the number of actual disk reads is much smaller than the number of buffer hits, then the cache is satisfying most read requests without invoking a kernel call. However, these statistics do not give the entire story: due to the way in which PostgreSQL handles disk I/O, data that is not in the PostgreSQL buffer cache might still reside in the kernel's I/O cache, and might therefore still be fetched without requiring a physical read. Users interested in obtaining more detailed information on PostgreSQL I/O behavior are advised to use the PostgreSQL statistics collector in combination with operating system utilities that allow insight into the kernel's handling of I/O.

Table 28.3. pg_stat_activity View

Column

Type

Description

datid

oid

此後端連線到的資料庫 OID

datname

name

此後端連線到的資料庫名稱

pid

integer

此後端的程序 ID

usesysid

oid

登入此後端的使用者 OID

usename

name

登入到此後端的使用者名稱

application_name

text

連線到此後端的應用程序名稱

client_addr

inet

連線到此後端的客戶端的 IP 位址。如果此字串為空,則表示客戶端通過伺服器上的 Unix socket 連線,或者這是內部程序(如 autovacuum)。

client_hostname

text

已連接用戶端的主機名稱,由 client_addr 的反向 DNS 查詢回報。對於 IP 連線,只有在 log_hostname 啓用時,此字串才不是空字串。

client_port

integer

用戶端用於與此後端通訊的 TCP 連接埠號碼,如果使用 Unix domain socket,則為 -1

backend_start

timestamp with time zone

此程序開始的時間。對於用戶端後端,這是用戶端連線到伺服器的時間。

xact_start

timestamp with time zone

此程序的當下交易事務已啟動的時間,如果沒有交易事務處於活動狀態,則為null。如果當下查詢是其交易事務的第一個,則此欄位等於 query_start 欄位。

query_start

timestamp with time zone

最後一個查詢啟動時,當下活動查詢的啟動時間,或狀態是否處於活動狀態

state_change

timestamp with time zone

狀態最後一次變更的時間

wait_event_type

text

The type of event for which the backend is waiting, if any; otherwise NULL. Possible values are:LWLock: The backend is waiting for a lightweight lock. Each such lock protects a particular data structure in shared memory. wait_event will contain a name identifying the purpose of the lightweight lock. (Some locks have specific names; others are part of a group of locks each with a similar purpose.)Lock: The backend is waiting for a heavyweight lock. Heavyweight locks, also known as lock manager locks or simply locks, primarily protect SQL-visible objects such as tables. However, they are also used to ensure mutual exclusion for certain internal operations such as relation extension. wait_event will identify the type of lock awaited.BufferPin: The server process is waiting to access to a data buffer during a period when no other process can be examining that buffer. Buffer pin waits can be protracted if another process holds an open cursor which last read data from the buffer in question.Activity: The server process is idle. This is used by system processes waiting for activity in their main processing loop. wait_event will identify the specific wait point.Extension: The server process is waiting for activity in an extension module. This category is useful for modules to track custom waiting points.Client: The server process is waiting for some activity on a socket from user applications, and that the server expects something to happen that is independent from its internal processes. wait_event will identify the specific wait point.IPC: The server process is waiting for some activity from another process in the server. wait_event will identify the specific wait point.Timeout: The server process is waiting for a timeout to expire. wait_event will identify the specific wait point.IO: The server process is waiting for a IO to complete. wait_event will identify the specific wait point.

wait_event

text

Wait event name if backend is currently waiting, otherwise NULL. See Table 28.4 for details.

state

text

Current overall state of this backend. Possible values are:active: The backend is executing a query.idle: The backend is waiting for a new client command.idle in transaction: The backend is in a transaction, but is not currently executing a query.idle in transaction (aborted): This state is similar to idle in transaction, except one of the statements in the transaction caused an error.fastpath function call: The backend is executing a fast-path function.disabled: This state is reported if track_activities is disabled in this backend.

backend_xid

xid

Top-level transaction identifier of this backend, if any.

backend_xmin

xid

The current backend's xmin horizon.

query

text

Text of this backend's most recent query. If state is active this field shows the currently executing query. In all other states, it shows the last query that was executed. By default the query text is truncated at 1024 characters; this value can be changed via the parameter track_activity_query_size.

backend_type

text

當下後端的類型。可能的類型是 autovacuum launcher, autovacuum worker, background worker, background writer, client backend, checkpointer, startup, walreceiver, walsender and walwriter.

The pg_stat_activity view will have one row per server process, showing information related to the current activity of that process.

Note

The wait_event and state columns are independent. If a backend is in the active state, it may or may not be waiting on some event. If the state is active and wait_event is non-null, it means that a query is being executed, but is being blocked somewhere in the system.

Table 28.4. wait_event Description

Wait Event Type

Wait Event Name

Description

LWLock

ShmemIndexLock

Waiting to find or allocate space in shared memory.

OidGenLock

Waiting to allocate or assign an OID.

XidGenLock

Waiting to allocate or assign a transaction id.

ProcArrayLock

Waiting to get a snapshot or clearing a transaction id at transaction end.

SInvalReadLock

Waiting to retrieve or remove messages from shared invalidation queue.

SInvalWriteLock

Waiting to add a message in shared invalidation queue.

WALBufMappingLock

Waiting to replace a page in WAL buffers.

WALWriteLock

Waiting for WAL buffers to be written to disk.

ControlFileLock

Waiting to read or update the control file or creation of a new WAL file.

CheckpointLock

Waiting to perform checkpoint.

CLogControlLock

Waiting to read or update transaction status.

SubtransControlLock

Waiting to read or update sub-transaction information.

MultiXactGenLock

Waiting to read or update shared multixact state.

MultiXactOffsetControlLock

Waiting to read or update multixact offset mappings.

MultiXactMemberControlLock

Waiting to read or update multixact member mappings.

RelCacheInitLock

Waiting to read or write relation cache initialization file.

CheckpointerCommLock

Waiting to manage fsync requests.

TwoPhaseStateLock

Waiting to read or update the state of prepared transactions.

TablespaceCreateLock

Waiting to create or drop the tablespace.

BtreeVacuumLock

Waiting to read or update vacuum-related information for a B-tree index.

AddinShmemInitLock

Waiting to manage space allocation in shared memory.

AutovacuumLock

Autovacuum worker or launcher waiting to update or read the current state of autovacuum workers.

AutovacuumScheduleLock

Waiting to ensure that the table it has selected for a vacuum still needs vacuuming.

SyncScanLock

Waiting to get the start location of a scan on a table for synchronized scans.

RelationMappingLock

Waiting to update the relation map file used to store catalog to filenode mapping.

AsyncCtlLock

Waiting to read or update shared notification state.

AsyncQueueLock

Waiting to read or update notification messages.

SerializableXactHashLock

Waiting to retrieve or store information about serializable transactions.

SerializableFinishedListLock

Waiting to access the list of finished serializable transactions.

SerializablePredicateLockListLock

Waiting to perform an operation on a list of locks held by serializable transactions.

OldSerXidLock

Waiting to read or record conflicting serializable transactions.

SyncRepLock

Waiting to read or update information about synchronous replicas.

BackgroundWorkerLock

Waiting to read or update background worker state.

DynamicSharedMemoryControlLock

Waiting to read or update dynamic shared memory state.

AutoFileLock

Waiting to update the postgresql.auto.conf file.

ReplicationSlotAllocationLock

Waiting to allocate or free a replication slot.

ReplicationSlotControlLock

Waiting to read or update replication slot state.

CommitTsControlLock

Waiting to read or update transaction commit timestamps.

CommitTsLock

Waiting to read or update the last value set for the transaction timestamp.

ReplicationOriginLock

Waiting to setup, drop or use replication origin.

MultiXactTruncationLock

Waiting to read or truncate multixact information.

OldSnapshotTimeMapLock

Waiting to read or update old snapshot control information.

BackendRandomLock

Waiting to generate a random number.

LogicalRepWorkerLock

Waiting for action on logical replication worker to finish.

CLogTruncationLock

Waiting to truncate the write-ahead log or waiting for write-ahead log truncation to finish.

clog

Waiting for I/O on a clog (transaction status) buffer.

commit_timestamp

Waiting for I/O on commit timestamp buffer.

subtrans

Waiting for I/O a subtransaction buffer.

multixact_offset

Waiting for I/O on a multixact offset buffer.

multixact_member

Waiting for I/O on a multixact_member buffer.

async

Waiting for I/O on an async (notify) buffer.

oldserxid

Waiting to I/O on an oldserxid buffer.

wal_insert

Waiting to insert WAL into a memory buffer.

buffer_content

Waiting to read or write a data page in memory.

buffer_io

Waiting for I/O on a data page.

replication_origin

Waiting to read or update the replication progress.

replication_slot_io

Waiting for I/O on a replication slot.

proc

Waiting to read or update the fast-path lock information.

buffer_mapping

Waiting to associate a data block with a buffer in the buffer pool.

lock_manager

Waiting to add or examine locks for backends, or waiting to join or exit a locking group (used by parallel query).

predicate_lock_manager

Waiting to add or examine predicate lock information.

parallel_query_dsa

Waiting for parallel query dynamic shared memory allocation lock.

tbm

Waiting for TBM shared iterator lock.

Lock

relation

Waiting to acquire a lock on a relation.

extend

Waiting to extend a relation.

page

Waiting to acquire a lock on page of a relation.

tuple

Waiting to acquire a lock on a tuple.

transactionid

Waiting for a transaction to finish.

virtualxid

Waiting to acquire a virtual xid lock.

speculative token

Waiting to acquire a speculative insertion lock.

object

Waiting to acquire a lock on a non-relation database object.

userlock

Waiting to acquire a user lock.

advisory

Waiting to acquire an advisory user lock.

BufferPin

BufferPin

Waiting to acquire a pin on a buffer.

Activity

ArchiverMain

Waiting in main loop of the archiver process.

AutoVacuumMain

Waiting in main loop of autovacuum launcher process.

BgWriterHibernate

Waiting in background writer process, hibernating.

BgWriterMain

Waiting in main loop of background writer process background worker.

CheckpointerMain

Waiting in main loop of checkpointer process.

LogicalLauncherMain

Waiting in main loop of logical launcher process.

LogicalApplyMain

Waiting in main loop of logical apply process.

PgStatMain

Waiting in main loop of the statistics collector process.

RecoveryWalAll

Waiting for WAL from any kind of source (local, archive or stream) at recovery.

RecoveryWalStream

Waiting for WAL from a stream at recovery.

SysLoggerMain

Waiting in main loop of syslogger process.

WalReceiverMain

Waiting in main loop of WAL receiver process.

WalSenderMain

Waiting in main loop of WAL sender process.

WalWriterMain

Waiting in main loop of WAL writer process.

Client

ClientRead

Waiting to read data from the client.

ClientWrite

Waiting to write data from the client.

LibPQWalReceiverConnect

Waiting in WAL receiver to establish connection to remote server.

LibPQWalReceiverReceive

Waiting in WAL receiver to receive data from remote server.

SSLOpenServer

Waiting for SSL while attempting connection.

WalReceiverWaitStart

Waiting for startup process to send initial data for streaming replication.

WalSenderWaitForWAL

Waiting for WAL to be flushed in WAL sender process.

WalSenderWriteData

Waiting for any activity when processing replies from WAL receiver in WAL sender process.

Extension

Extension

Waiting in an extension.

IPC

BgWorkerShutdown

Waiting for background worker to shut down.

BgWorkerStartup

Waiting for background worker to start up.

BtreePage

Waiting for the page number needed to continue a parallel B-tree scan to become available.

ExecuteGather

Waiting for activity from child process when executing Gather node.

LogicalSyncData

Waiting for logical replication remote server to send data for initial table synchronization.

LogicalSyncStateChange

Waiting for logical replication remote server to change state.

MessageQueueInternal

Waiting for other process to be attached in shared message queue.

MessageQueuePutMessage

Waiting to write a protocol message to a shared message queue.

MessageQueueReceive

Waiting to receive bytes from a shared message queue.

MessageQueueSend

Waiting to send bytes to a shared message queue.

ParallelFinish

Waiting for parallel workers to finish computing.

ParallelBitmapScan

Waiting for parallel bitmap scan to become initialized.

ProcArrayGroupUpdate

Waiting for group leader to clear transaction id at transaction end.

ReplicationOriginDrop

Waiting for a replication origin to become inactive to be dropped.

ReplicationSlotDrop

Waiting for a replication slot to become inactive to be dropped.

SafeSnapshot

Waiting for a snapshot for a READ ONLY DEFERRABLE transaction.

SyncRep

Waiting for confirmation from remote server during synchronous replication.

Timeout

BaseBackupThrottle

Waiting during base backup when throttling activity.

PgSleep

Waiting in process that called pg_sleep.

RecoveryApplyDelay

Waiting to apply WAL at recovery because it is delayed.

IO

BufFileRead

Waiting for a read from a buffered file.

BufFileWrite

Waiting for a write to a buffered file.

ControlFileRead

Waiting for a read from the control file.

ControlFileSync

Waiting for the control file to reach stable storage.

ControlFileSyncUpdate

Waiting for an update to the control file to reach stable storage.

ControlFileWrite

Waiting for a write to the control file.

ControlFileWriteUpdate

Waiting for a write to update the control file.

CopyFileRead

Waiting for a read during a file copy operation.

CopyFileWrite

Waiting for a write during a file copy operation.

DataFileExtend

Waiting for a relation data file to be extended.

DataFileFlush

Waiting for a relation data file to reach stable storage.

DataFileImmediateSync

Waiting for an immediate synchronization of a relation data file to stable storage.

DataFilePrefetch

Waiting for an asynchronous prefetch from a relation data file.

DataFileRead

Waiting for a read from a relation data file.

DataFileSync

Waiting for changes to a relation data file to reach stable storage.

DataFileTruncate

Waiting for a relation data file to be truncated.

DataFileWrite

Waiting for a write to a relation data file.

DSMFillZeroWrite

Waiting to write zero bytes to a dynamic shared memory backing file.

LockFileAddToDataDirRead

Waiting for a read while adding a line to the data directory lock file.

LockFileAddToDataDirSync

Waiting for data to reach stable storage while adding a line to the data directory lock file.

LockFileAddToDataDirWrite

Waiting for a write while adding a line to the data directory lock file.

LockFileCreateRead

Waiting to read while creating the data directory lock file.

LockFileCreateSync

Waiting for data to reach stable storage while creating the data directory lock file.

LockFileCreateWrite

Waiting for a write while creating the data directory lock file.

LockFileReCheckDataDirRead

Waiting for a read during recheck of the data directory lock file.

LogicalRewriteCheckpointSync

Waiting for logical rewrite mappings to reach stable storage during a checkpoint.

LogicalRewriteMappingSync

Waiting for mapping data to reach stable storage during a logical rewrite.

LogicalRewriteMappingWrite

Waiting for a write of mapping data during a logical rewrite.

LogicalRewriteSync

Waiting for logical rewrite mappings to reach stable storage.

LogicalRewriteWrite

Waiting for a write of logical rewrite mappings.

RelationMapRead

Waiting for a read of the relation map file.

RelationMapSync

Waiting for the relation map file to reach stable storage.

RelationMapWrite

Waiting for a write to the relation map file.

ReorderBufferRead

Waiting for a read during reorder buffer management.

ReorderBufferWrite

Waiting for a write during reorder buffer management.

ReorderLogicalMappingRead

Waiting for a read of a logical mapping during reorder buffer management.

ReplicationSlotRead

Waiting for a read from a replication slot control file.

ReplicationSlotRestoreSync

Waiting for a replication slot control file to reach stable storage while restoring it to memory.

ReplicationSlotSync

Waiting for a replication slot control file to reach stable storage.

ReplicationSlotWrite

Waiting for a write to a replication slot control file.

SLRUFlushSync

Waiting for SLRU data to reach stable storage during a checkpoint or database shutdown.

SLRURead

Waiting for a read of an SLRU page.

SLRUSync

Waiting for SLRU data to reach stable storage following a page write.

SLRUWrite

Waiting for a write of an SLRU page.

SnapbuildRead

Waiting for a read of a serialized historical catalog snapshot.

SnapbuildSync

Waiting for a serialized historical catalog snapshot to reach stable storage.

SnapbuildWrite

Waiting for a write of a serialized historical catalog snapshot.

TimelineHistoryFileSync

Waiting for a timeline history file received via streaming replication to reach stable storage.

TimelineHistoryFileWrite

Waiting for a write of a timeline history file received via streaming replication.

TimelineHistoryRead

Waiting for a read of a timeline history file.

TimelineHistorySync

Waiting for a newly created timeline history file to reach stable storage.

TimelineHistoryWrite

Waiting for a write of a newly created timeline history file.

TwophaseFileRead

Waiting for a read of a two phase state file.

TwophaseFileSync

Waiting for a two phase state file to reach stable storage.

TwophaseFileWrite

Waiting for a write of a two phase state file.

WALBootstrapSync

Waiting for WAL to reach stable storage during bootstrapping.

WALBootstrapWrite

Waiting for a write of a WAL page during bootstrapping.

WALCopyRead

Waiting for a read when creating a new WAL segment by copying an existing one.

WALCopySync

Waiting a new WAL segment created by copying an existing one to reach stable storage.

WALCopyWrite

Waiting for a write when creating a new WAL segment by copying an existing one.

WALInitSync

Waiting for a newly initialized WAL file to reach stable storage.

WALInitWrite

Waiting for a write while initializing a new WAL file.

WALRead

Waiting for a read from a WAL file.

WALSenderTimelineHistoryRead

Waiting for a read from a timeline history file during walsender timeline command.

WALSyncMethodAssign

Waiting for data to reach stable storage while assigning WAL sync method.

WALWrite

Waiting for a write to a WAL file.

Note

For tranches registered by extensions, the name is specified by extension and this will be displayed as wait_event. It is quite possible that user has registered the tranche in one of the backends (by having allocation in dynamic shared memory) in which case other backends won't have that information, so we display extension for such cases.

Here is an example of how wait events can be viewed

SELECT pid, wait_event_type, wait_event FROM pg_stat_activity WHERE wait_event is NOT NULL;
 pid  | wait_event_type |  wait_event
------+-----------------+---------------
 2540 | Lock            | relation
 6644 | LWLock          | ProcArrayLock
(2 rows)

Table 28.5. pg_stat_replication View

Column

Type

Description

pid

integer

Process ID of a WAL sender process

usesysid

oid

OID of the user logged into this WAL sender process

usename

name

Name of the user logged into this WAL sender process

application_name

text

Name of the application that is connected to this WAL sender

client_addr

inet

IP address of the client connected to this WAL sender. If this field is null, it indicates that the client is connected via a Unix socket on the server machine.

client_hostname

text

Host name of the connected client, as reported by a reverse DNS lookup of client_addr. This field will only be non-null for IP connections, and only when log_hostname is enabled.

client_port

integer

TCP port number that the client is using for communication with this WAL sender, or -1 if a Unix socket is used

backend_start

timestamp with time zone

Time when this process was started, i.e., when the client connected to this WAL sender

backend_xmin

xid

This standby's xmin horizon reported by hot_standby_feedback.

state

text

Current WAL sender state. Possible values are:startup: This WAL sender is starting up.catchup: This WAL sender's connected standby is catching up with the primary.streaming: This WAL sender is streaming changes after its connected standby server has caught up with the primary.backup: This WAL sender is sending a backup.stopping: This WAL sender is stopping.

sent_lsn

pg_lsn

Last write-ahead log location sent on this connection

write_lsn

pg_lsn

Last write-ahead log location written to disk by this standby server

flush_lsn

pg_lsn

Last write-ahead log location flushed to disk by this standby server

replay_lsn

pg_lsn

Last write-ahead log location replayed into the database on this standby server

write_lag

interval

Time elapsed between flushing recent WAL locally and receiving notification that this standby server has written it (but not yet flushed it or applied it). This can be used to gauge the delay that synchronous_commit level remote_write incurred while committing if this server was configured as a synchronous standby.

flush_lag

interval

Time elapsed between flushing recent WAL locally and receiving notification that this standby server has written and flushed it (but not yet applied it). This can be used to gauge the delay that synchronous_commit level remote_flush incurred while committing if this server was configured as a synchronous standby.

replay_lag

interval

Time elapsed between flushing recent WAL locally and receiving notification that this standby server has written, flushed and applied it. This can be used to gauge the delay that synchronous_commit level remote_apply incurred while committing if this server was configured as a synchronous standby.

sync_priority

integer

Priority of this standby server for being chosen as the synchronous standby in a priority-based synchronous replication. This has no effect in a quorum-based synchronous replication.

sync_state

text

Synchronous state of this standby server. Possible values are:async: This standby server is asynchronous.potential: This standby server is now asynchronous, but can potentially become synchronous if one of current synchronous ones fails.sync: This standby server is synchronous.quorum: This standby server is considered as a candidate for quorum standbys.

The pg_stat_replication view will contain one row per WAL sender process, showing statistics about replication to that sender's connected standby server. Only directly connected standbys are listed; no information is available about downstream standby servers.

The lag times reported in the pg_stat_replication view are measurements of the time taken for recent WAL to be written, flushed and replayed and for the sender to know about it. These times represent the commit delay that was (or would have been) introduced by each synchronous commit level, if the remote server was configured as a synchronous standby. For an asynchronous standby, the replay_lag column approximates the delay before recent transactions became visible to queries. If the standby server has entirely caught up with the sending server and there is no more WAL activity, the most recently measured lag times will continue to be displayed for a short time and then show NULL.

Lag times work automatically for physical replication. Logical decoding plugins may optionally emit tracking messages; if they do not, the tracking mechanism will simply display NULL lag.

Note

The reported lag times are not predictions of how long it will take for the standby to catch up with the sending server assuming the current rate of replay. Such a system would show similar times while new WAL is being generated, but would differ when the sender becomes idle. In particular, when the standby has caught up completely, pg_stat_replication shows the time taken to write, flush and replay the most recent reported WAL location rather than zero as some users might expect. This is consistent with the goal of measuring synchronous commit and transaction visibility delays for recent write transactions. To reduce confusion for users expecting a different model of lag, the lag columns revert to NULL after a short time on a fully replayed idle system. Monitoring systems should choose whether to represent this as missing data, zero or continue to display the last known value.

Table 28.6. pg_stat_wal_receiver View

Column

Type

Description

pid

integer

Process ID of the WAL receiver process

status

text

Activity status of the WAL receiver process

receive_start_lsn

pg_lsn

First write-ahead log location used when WAL receiver is started

receive_start_tli

integer

First timeline number used when WAL receiver is started

received_lsn

pg_lsn

Last write-ahead log location already received and flushed to disk, the initial value of this field being the first log location used when WAL receiver is started

received_tli

integer

Timeline number of last write-ahead log location received and flushed to disk, the initial value of this field being the timeline number of the first log location used when WAL receiver is started

last_msg_send_time

timestamp with time zone

Send time of last message received from origin WAL sender

last_msg_receipt_time

timestamp with time zone

Receipt time of last message received from origin WAL sender

latest_end_lsn

pg_lsn

Last write-ahead log location reported to origin WAL sender

latest_end_time

timestamp with time zone

Time of last write-ahead log location reported to origin WAL sender

slot_name

text

Replication slot name used by this WAL receiver

conninfo

text

Connection string used by this WAL receiver, with security-sensitive fields obfuscated.

The pg_stat_wal_receiver view will contain only one row, showing statistics about the WAL receiver from that receiver's connected server.

Table 28.7. pg_stat_subscription View

Column

Type

Description

subid

oid

OID of the subscription

subname

text

Name of the subscription

pid

integer

Process ID of the subscription worker process

relid

Oid

OID of the relation that the worker is synchronizing; null for the main apply worker

received_lsn

pg_lsn

Last write-ahead log location received, the initial value of this field being 0

last_msg_send_time

timestamp with time zone

Send time of last message received from origin WAL sender

last_msg_receipt_time

timestamp with time zone

Receipt time of last message received from origin WAL sender

latest_end_lsn

pg_lsn

Last write-ahead log location reported to origin WAL sender

latest_end_time

timestamp with time zone

Time of last write-ahead log location reported to origin WAL sender

The pg_stat_subscription view will contain one row per subscription for main worker (with null PID if the worker is not running), and additional rows for workers handling the initial data copy of the subscribed tables.

Table 28.8. pg_stat_ssl View

Column

Type

Description

pid

integer

Process ID of a backend or WAL sender process

ssl

boolean

True if SSL is used on this connection

version

text

Version of SSL in use, or NULL if SSL is not in use on this connection

cipher

text

Name of SSL cipher in use, or NULL if SSL is not in use on this connection

bits

integer

Number of bits in the encryption algorithm used, or NULL if SSL is not used on this connection

compression

boolean

True if SSL compression is in use, false if not, or NULL if SSL is not in use on this connection

clientdn

text

Distinguished Name (DN) field from the client certificate used, or NULL if no client certificate was supplied or if SSL is not in use on this connection. This field is truncated if the DN field is longer than NAMEDATALEN (64 characters in a standard build)

The pg_stat_ssl view will contain one row per backend or WAL sender process, showing statistics about SSL usage on this connection. It can be joined to pg_stat_activity or pg_stat_replication on the pid column to get more details about the connection.

Table 28.9. pg_stat_archiver View

Column

Type

Description

archived_count

bigint

Number of WAL files that have been successfully archived

last_archived_wal

text

Name of the last WAL file successfully archived

last_archived_time

timestamp with time zone

Time of the last successful archive operation

failed_count

bigint

Number of failed attempts for archiving WAL files

last_failed_wal

text

Name of the WAL file of the last failed archival operation

last_failed_time

timestamp with time zone

Time of the last failed archival operation

stats_reset

timestamp with time zone

Time at which these statistics were last reset

The pg_stat_archiver view will always have a single row, containing data about the archiver process of the cluster.

Table 28.10. pg_stat_bgwriter View

Column

Type

Description

checkpoints_timed

bigint

Number of scheduled checkpoints that have been performed

checkpoints_req

bigint

Number of requested checkpoints that have been performed

checkpoint_write_time

double precision

Total amount of time that has been spent in the portion of checkpoint processing where files are written to disk, in milliseconds

checkpoint_sync_time

double precision

Total amount of time that has been spent in the portion of checkpoint processing where files are synchronized to disk, in milliseconds

buffers_checkpoint

bigint

Number of buffers written during checkpoints

buffers_clean

bigint

Number of buffers written by the background writer

maxwritten_clean

bigint

Number of times the background writer stopped a cleaning scan because it had written too many buffers

buffers_backend

bigint

Number of buffers written directly by a backend

buffers_backend_fsync

bigint

Number of times a backend had to execute its own fsync call (normally the background writer handles those even when the backend does its own write)

buffers_alloc

bigint

Number of buffers allocated

stats_reset

timestamp with time zone

Time at which these statistics were last reset

The pg_stat_bgwriter view will always have a single row, containing global data for the cluster.

Table 28.11. pg_stat_database View

Column

Type

Description

datid

oid

OID of a database

datname

name

Name of this database

numbackends

integer

Number of backends currently connected to this database. This is the only column in this view that returns a value reflecting current state; all other columns return the accumulated values since the last reset.

xact_commit

bigint

Number of transactions in this database that have been committed

xact_rollback

bigint

Number of transactions in this database that have been rolled back

blks_read

bigint

Number of disk blocks read in this database

blks_hit

bigint

Number of times disk blocks were found already in the buffer cache, so that a read was not necessary (this only includes hits in the PostgreSQL buffer cache, not the operating system's file system cache)

tup_returned

bigint

Number of rows returned by queries in this database

tup_fetched

bigint

Number of rows fetched by queries in this database

tup_inserted

bigint

Number of rows inserted by queries in this database

tup_updated

bigint

Number of rows updated by queries in this database

tup_deleted

bigint

Number of rows deleted by queries in this database

conflicts

bigint

Number of queries canceled due to conflicts with recovery in this database. (Conflicts occur only on standby servers; see pg_stat_database_conflicts for details.)

temp_files

bigint

Number of temporary files created by queries in this database. All temporary files are counted, regardless of why the temporary file was created (e.g., sorting or hashing), and regardless of the log_temp_files setting.

temp_bytes

bigint

Total amount of data written to temporary files by queries in this database. All temporary files are counted, regardless of why the temporary file was created, and regardless of the log_temp_files setting.

deadlocks

bigint

Number of deadlocks detected in this database

blk_read_time

double precision

Time spent reading data file blocks by backends in this database, in milliseconds

blk_write_time

double precision

Time spent writing data file blocks by backends in this database, in milliseconds

stats_reset

timestamp with time zone

Time at which these statistics were last reset

The pg_stat_database view will contain one row for each database in the cluster, showing database-wide statistics.

Table 28.12. pg_stat_database_conflicts View

Column

Type

Description

datid

oid

OID of a database

datname

name

Name of this database

confl_tablespace

bigint

Number of queries in this database that have been canceled due to dropped tablespaces

confl_lock

bigint

Number of queries in this database that have been canceled due to lock timeouts

confl_snapshot

bigint

Number of queries in this database that have been canceled due to old snapshots

confl_bufferpin

bigint

Number of queries in this database that have been canceled due to pinned buffers

confl_deadlock

bigint

Number of queries in this database that have been canceled due to deadlocks

The pg_stat_database_conflicts view will contain one row per database, showing database-wide statistics about query cancels occurring due to conflicts with recovery on standby servers. This view will only contain information on standby servers, since conflicts do not occur on master servers.

Table 28.13. pg_stat_all_tables View

Column

Type

Description

relid

oid

OID of a table

schemaname

name

Name of the schema that this table is in

relname

name

Name of this table

seq_scan

bigint

Number of sequential scans initiated on this table

seq_tup_read

bigint

Number of live rows fetched by sequential scans

idx_scan

bigint

Number of index scans initiated on this table

idx_tup_fetch

bigint

Number of live rows fetched by index scans

n_tup_ins

bigint

Number of rows inserted

n_tup_upd

bigint

Number of rows updated (includes HOT updated rows)

n_tup_del

bigint

Number of rows deleted

n_tup_hot_upd

bigint

Number of rows HOT updated (i.e., with no separate index update required)

n_live_tup

bigint

Estimated number of live rows

n_dead_tup

bigint

Estimated number of dead rows

n_mod_since_analyze

bigint

Estimated number of rows modified since this table was last analyzed

last_vacuum

timestamp with time zone

Last time at which this table was manually vacuumed (not counting VACUUM FULL)

last_autovacuum

timestamp with time zone

Last time at which this table was vacuumed by the autovacuum daemon

last_analyze

timestamp with time zone

Last time at which this table was manually analyzed

last_autoanalyze

timestamp with time zone

Last time at which this table was analyzed by the autovacuum daemon

vacuum_count