CLUSTER — cluster a table according to an index
CLUSTER [VERBOSE] table_name [ USING index_name ]
CLUSTERinstructs PostgreSQL to cluster the table specified by
table_namebased on the index specified by
index_name. The index must already have been defined on
When a table is clustered, it is physically reordered based on the index information. Clustering is a one-time operation: when the table is subsequently updated, the changes are not clustered. That is, no attempt is made to store new or updated rows according to their index order. (If one wishes, one can periodically recluster by issuing the command again. Also, setting the table's
fillfactorstorage parameter to less than 100% can aid in preserving cluster ordering during updates, since updated rows are kept on the same page if enough space is available there.)
When a table is clustered, PostgreSQL remembers which index it was clustered by. The form
table_namereclusters the table using the same index as before. You can also use the
SET WITHOUT CLUSTERforms of ALTER TABLE to set the index to be used for future cluster operations, or to clear any previous setting.
CLUSTERwithout any parameter reclusters all the previously-clustered tables in the current database that the calling user owns, or all such tables if called by a superuser. This form of
CLUSTERcannot be executed inside a transaction block.
When a table is being clustered, an
ACCESS EXCLUSIVElock is acquired on it. This prevents any other database operations (both reads and writes) from operating on the table until the
The name (possibly schema-qualified) of a table.
The name of an index.
Prints a progress report as each table is clustered.
In cases where you are accessing single rows randomly within a table, the actual order of the data in the table is unimportant. However, if you tend to access some data more than others, and there is an index that groups them together, you will benefit from using
CLUSTER. If you are requesting a range of indexed values from a table, or a single indexed value that has multiple rows that match,
CLUSTERwill help because once the index identifies the table page for the first row that matches, all other rows that match are probably already on the same table page, and so you save disk accesses and speed up the query.
CLUSTERcan re-sort the table using either an index scan on the specified index, or (if the index is a b-tree) a sequential scan followed by sorting. It will attempt to choose the method that will be faster, based on planner cost parameters and available statistical information.
When an index scan is used, a temporary copy of the table is created that contains the table data in the index order. Temporary copies of each index on the table are created as well. Therefore, you need free space on disk at least equal to the sum of the table size and the index sizes.
When a sequential scan and sort is used, a temporary sort file is also created, so that the peak temporary space requirement is as much as double the table size, plus the index sizes. This method is often faster than the index scan method, but if the disk space requirement is intolerable, you can disable this choice by temporarily setting enable_sort to
CLUSTERremembers which indexes are clustered, one can cluster the tables one wants clustered manually the first time, then set up a periodic maintenance script that executes
CLUSTERwithout any parameters, so that the desired tables are periodically reclustered.
Cluster the table
employeeson the basis of its index
CLUSTER employees USING employees_ind;
employeestable using the same index that was used before:
Cluster all tables in the database that have previously been clustered:
There is no
CLUSTERstatement in the SQL standard.
CLUSTER index_name ON table_name
is also supported for compatibility with pre-8.3 PostgreSQL versions.