28.2. 統計資訊收集器

PostgreSQL's cumulative statistics system supports collection and reporting of information about server activity. Presently, accesses to tables and indexes in both disk-block and individual-row terms are counted. The total number of rows in each table, and information about vacuum and analyze actions for each table are also counted. If enabled, calls to user-defined functions and the total time spent in each one are counted as well.

PostgreSQL also supports reporting dynamic information about exactly what is going on in the system right now, such as the exact command currently being executed by other server processes, and which other connections exist in the system. This facility is independent of the cumulative statistics system.

28.2.1. Statistics Collection Configuration

Since collection of statistics adds some overhead to query execution, the system can be configured to collect or not collect information. This is controlled by configuration parameters that are normally set in postgresql.conf. (See Chapter 20 for details about setting configuration parameters.)

The parameter track_activities enables monitoring of the current command being executed by any server process.

The parameter track_counts controls whether cumulative statistics are collected about table and index accesses.

The parameter track_functions enables tracking of usage of user-defined functions.

The parameter track_io_timing enables monitoring of block read and write times.

The parameter track_wal_io_timing enables monitoring of WAL write times.

Normally these parameters are set in postgresql.conf so that they apply to all server processes, but it is possible to turn them on or off in individual sessions using the SET command. (To prevent ordinary users from hiding their activity from the administrator, only superusers are allowed to change these parameters with SET.)

Cumulative statistics are collected in shared memory. Every PostgreSQL process collects statistics locally, then updates the shared data at appropriate intervals. When a server, including a physical replica, shuts down cleanly, a permanent copy of the statistics data is stored in the pg_stat subdirectory, so that statistics can be retained across server restarts. In contrast, when starting from an unclean shutdown (e.g., after an immediate shutdown, a server crash, starting from a base backup, and point-in-time recovery), all statistics counters are reset.

28.2.2. Viewing Statistics

Several predefined views, listed in Table 28.1, are available to show the current state of the system. There are also several other views, listed in Table 28.2, available to show the accumulated statistics. Alternatively, one can build custom views using the underlying cumulative statistics functions, as discussed in Section 28.2.24.

When using the cumulative statistics views and functions to monitor collected data, it is important to realize that the information does not update instantaneously. Each individual server process flushes out accumulated statistics to shared memory just before going idle, but not more frequently than once per PGSTAT_MIN_INTERVAL milliseconds (1 second unless altered while building the server); so a query or transaction still in progress does not affect the displayed totals and the displayed information lags behind actual activity. However, current-query information collected by track_activities is always up-to-date.

Another important point is that when a server process is asked to display any of the accumulated statistics, accessed values are cached until the end of its current transaction in the default configuration. So the statistics will show static information as long as you continue the current transaction. Similarly, information about the current queries of all sessions is collected when any such information is first requested within a transaction, and the same information will be displayed throughout the transaction. This is a feature, not a bug, because it allows you to perform several queries on the statistics and correlate the results without worrying that the numbers are changing underneath you. When analyzing statistics interactively, or with expensive queries, the time delta between accesses to individual statistics can lead to significant skew in the cached statistics. To minimize skew, stats_fetch_consistency can be set to snapshot, at the price of increased memory usage for caching not-needed statistics data. Conversely, if it's known that statistics are only accessed once, caching accessed statistics is unnecessary and can be avoided by setting stats_fetch_consistency to none. You can invoke pg_stat_clear_snapshot() to discard the current transaction's statistics snapshot or cached values (if any). The next use of statistical information will (when in snapshot mode) cause a new snapshot to be built or (when in cache mode) accessed statistics to be cached.

A transaction can also see its own statistics (not yet flushed out to the shared memory statistics) in the views pg_stat_xact_all_tables, pg_stat_xact_sys_tables, pg_stat_xact_user_tables, and pg_stat_xact_user_functions. These numbers do not act as stated above; instead they update continuously throughout the transaction.

Some of the information in the dynamic statistics views shown in Table 28.1 is security restricted. Ordinary users can only see all the information about their own sessions (sessions belonging to a role that they are a member of). In rows about other sessions, many columns will be null. Note, however, that the existence of a session and its general properties such as its sessions user and database are visible to all users. Superusers and roles with privileges of built-in role pg_read_all_stats (see also Section 22.5) can see all the information about all sessions.

Table 28.1. Dynamic Statistics Views

View NameDescription

pg_stat_activity

One row per server process, showing information related to the current activity of that process, such as state and current query. See pg_stat_activity for details.

pg_stat_replication

One row per WAL sender process, showing statistics about replication to that sender's connected standby server. See pg_stat_replication for details.

pg_stat_wal_receiver

Only one row, showing statistics about the WAL receiver from that receiver's connected server. See pg_stat_wal_receiver for details.

pg_stat_recovery_prefetch

Only one row, showing statistics about blocks prefetched during recovery. See pg_stat_recovery_prefetch for details.

pg_stat_subscription

At least one row per subscription, showing information about the subscription workers. See pg_stat_subscription for details.

pg_stat_ssl

One row per connection (regular and replication), showing information about SSL used on this connection. See pg_stat_ssl for details.

pg_stat_gssapi

One row per connection (regular and replication), showing information about GSSAPI authentication and encryption used on this connection. See pg_stat_gssapi for details.

pg_stat_progress_analyze

One row for each backend (including autovacuum worker processes) running ANALYZE, showing current progress. See Section 28.4.1.

pg_stat_progress_create_index

One row for each backend running CREATE INDEX or REINDEX, showing current progress. See Section 28.4.2.

pg_stat_progress_vacuum

One row for each backend (including autovacuum worker processes) running VACUUM, showing current progress. See Section 28.4.3.

pg_stat_progress_cluster

One row for each backend running CLUSTER or VACUUM FULL, showing current progress. See Section 28.4.4.

pg_stat_progress_basebackup

One row for each WAL sender process streaming a base backup, showing current progress. See Section 28.4.5.

pg_stat_progress_copy

One row for each backend running COPY, showing current progress. See Section 28.4.6.

Table 28.2. Collected Statistics Views

View NameDescription

pg_stat_archiver

One row only, showing statistics about the WAL archiver process's activity. See pg_stat_archiver for details.

pg_stat_bgwriter

One row only, showing statistics about the background writer process's activity. See pg_stat_bgwriter for details.

pg_stat_wal

One row only, showing statistics about WAL activity. See pg_stat_wal for details.

pg_stat_database

One row per database, showing database-wide statistics. See pg_stat_database for details.

pg_stat_database_conflicts

One row per database, showing database-wide statistics about query cancels due to conflict with recovery on standby servers. See pg_stat_database_conflicts for details.

pg_stat_all_tables

One row for each table in the current database, showing statistics about accesses to that specific table. See pg_stat_all_tables for details.

pg_stat_sys_tables

Same as pg_stat_all_tables, except that only system tables are shown.

pg_stat_user_tables

Same as pg_stat_all_tables, except that only user tables are shown.

pg_stat_xact_all_tables

Similar to pg_stat_all_tables, but counts actions taken so far within the current transaction (which are not yet included in pg_stat_all_tables and related views). The columns for numbers of live and dead rows and vacuum and analyze actions are not present in this view.

pg_stat_xact_sys_tables

Same as pg_stat_xact_all_tables, except that only system tables are shown.

pg_stat_xact_user_tables

Same as pg_stat_xact_all_tables, except that only user tables are shown.

pg_stat_all_indexes

One row for each index in the current database, showing statistics about accesses to that specific index. See pg_stat_all_indexes for details.

pg_stat_sys_indexes

Same as pg_stat_all_indexes, except that only indexes on system tables are shown.

pg_stat_user_indexes

Same as pg_stat_all_indexes, except that only indexes on user tables are shown.

pg_statio_all_tables

One row for each table in the current database, showing statistics about I/O on that specific table. See pg_statio_all_tables for details.

pg_statio_sys_tables

Same as pg_statio_all_tables, except that only system tables are shown.

pg_statio_user_tables

Same as pg_statio_all_tables, except that only user tables are shown.

pg_statio_all_indexes

One row for each index in the current database, showing statistics about I/O on that specific index. See pg_statio_all_indexes for details.

pg_statio_sys_indexes

Same as pg_statio_all_indexes, except that only indexes on system tables are shown.

pg_statio_user_indexes

Same as pg_statio_all_indexes, except that only indexes on user tables are shown.

pg_statio_all_sequences

One row for each sequence in the current database, showing statistics about I/O on that specific sequence. See pg_statio_all_sequences for details.

pg_statio_sys_sequences

Same as pg_statio_all_sequences, except that only system sequences are shown. (Presently, no system sequences are defined, so this view is always empty.)

pg_statio_user_sequences

Same as pg_statio_all_sequences, except that only user sequences are shown.

pg_stat_user_functions

One row for each tracked function, showing statistics about executions of that function. See pg_stat_user_functions for details.

pg_stat_xact_user_functions

Similar to pg_stat_user_functions, but counts only calls during the current transaction (which are not yet included in pg_stat_user_functions).

pg_stat_slru

One row per SLRU, showing statistics of operations. See pg_stat_slru for details.

pg_stat_replication_slots

One row per replication slot, showing statistics about the replication slot's usage. See pg_stat_replication_slots for details.

pg_stat_subscription_stats

One row per subscription, showing statistics about errors. See pg_stat_subscription_stats for details.

The per-index statistics are particularly useful to determine which indexes are being used and how effective they are.

The pg_statio_ views are primarily useful to determine the effectiveness of the buffer cache. When the number of actual disk reads is much smaller than the number of buffer hits, then the cache is satisfying most read requests without invoking a kernel call. However, these statistics do not give the entire story: due to the way in which PostgreSQL handles disk I/O, data that is not in the PostgreSQL buffer cache might still reside in the kernel's I/O cache, and might therefore still be fetched without requiring a physical read. Users interested in obtaining more detailed information on PostgreSQL I/O behavior are advised to use the PostgreSQL statistics views in combination with operating system utilities that allow insight into the kernel's handling of I/O.

28.2.3. pg_stat_activity

The pg_stat_activity view will have one row per server process, showing information related to the current activity of that process.

Table 28.3. pg_stat_activity View

Column Type

Description

datid oid

OID of the database this backend is connected to

datname name

Name of the database this backend is connected to

pid integer

Process ID of this backend

leader_pid integer

Process ID of the parallel group leader, if this process is a parallel query worker. NULL if this process is a parallel group leader or does not participate in parallel query.

usesysid oid

OID of the user logged into this backend

usename name

Name of the user logged into this backend

application_name text

Name of the application that is connected to this backend

client_addr inet

IP address of the client connected to this backend. If this field is null, it indicates either that the client is connected via a Unix socket on the server machine or that this is an internal process such as autovacuum.

client_hostname text

Host name of the connected client, as reported by a reverse DNS lookup of client_addr. This field will only be non-null for IP connections, and only when log_hostname is enabled.

client_port integer

TCP port number that the client is using for communication with this backend, or -1 if a Unix socket is used. If this field is null, it indicates that this is an internal server process.

backend_start timestamp with time zone

Time when this process was started. For client backends, this is the time the client connected to the server.

xact_start timestamp with time zone

Time when this process' current transaction was started, or null if no transaction is active. If the current query is the first of its transaction, this column is equal to the query_start column.

query_start timestamp with time zone

Time when the currently active query was started, or if state is not active, when the last query was started

state_change timestamp with time zone

Time when the state was last changed

wait_event_type text

The type of event for which the backend is waiting, if any; otherwise NULL. See Table 28.4.

wait_event text

Wait event name if backend is currently waiting, otherwise NULL. See Table 28.5 through Table 28.13.

state text

Current overall state of this backend. Possible values are:

  • active: The backend is executing a query.

  • idle: The backend is waiting for a new client command.

  • idle in transaction: The backend is in a transaction, but is not currently executing a query.

  • idle in transaction (aborted): This state is similar to idle in transaction, except one of the statements in the transaction caused an error.

  • fastpath function call: The backend is executing a fast-path function.

  • disabled: This state is reported if track_activities is disabled in this backend.

backend_xid xid

Top-level transaction identifier of this backend, if any.

backend_xmin xid

The current backend's xmin horizon.

query_id bigint

Identifier of this backend's most recent query. If state is active this field shows the identifier of the currently executing query. In all other states, it shows the identifier of last query that was executed. Query identifiers are not computed by default so this field will be null unless compute_query_id parameter is enabled or a third-party module that computes query identifiers is configured.

query text

Text of this backend's most recent query. If state is active this field shows the currently executing query. In all other states, it shows the last query that was executed. By default the query text is truncated at 1024 bytes; this value can be changed via the parameter track_activity_query_size.

backend_type text

Type of current backend. Possible types are autovacuum launcher, autovacuum worker, logical replication launcher, logical replication worker, parallel worker, background writer, client backend, checkpointer, archiver, startup, walreceiver, walsender and walwriter. In addition, background workers registered by extensions may have additional types.

Note

The wait_event and state columns are independent. If a backend is in the active state, it may or may not be waiting on some event. If the state is active and wait_event is non-null, it means that a query is being executed, but is being blocked somewhere in the system.

Table 28.4. Wait Event Types

Wait Event TypeDescription

Activity

The server process is idle. This event type indicates a process waiting for activity in its main processing loop. wait_event will identify the specific wait point; see Table 28.5.

BufferPin

The server process is waiting for exclusive access to a data buffer. Buffer pin waits can be protracted if another process holds an open cursor that last read data from the buffer in question. See Table 28.6.

Client

The server process is waiting for activity on a socket connected to a user application. Thus, the server expects something to happen that is independent of its internal processes. wait_event will identify the specific wait point; see Table 28.7.

Extension

The server process is waiting for some condition defined by an extension module. See Table 28.8.

IO

The server process is waiting for an I/O operation to complete. wait_event will identify the specific wait point; see Table 28.9.

IPC

The server process is waiting for some interaction with another server process. wait_event will identify the specific wait point; see Table 28.10.

Lock

The server process is waiting for a heavyweight lock. Heavyweight locks, also known as lock manager locks or simply locks, primarily protect SQL-visible objects such as tables. However, they are also used to ensure mutual exclusion for certain internal operations such as relation extension. wait_event will identify the type of lock awaited; see Table 28.11.

LWLock

The server process is waiting for a lightweight lock. Most such locks protect a particular data structure in shared memory. wait_event will contain a name identifying the purpose of the lightweight lock. (Some locks have specific names; others are part of a group of locks each with a similar purpose.) See Table 28.12.

Timeout

The server process is waiting for a timeout to expire. wait_event will identify the specific wait point; see Table 28.13.

Table 28.5. Wait Events of Type Activity

Activity Wait Event

Description

ArchiverMain

Waiting in main loop of archiver process.

AutoVacuumMain

Waiting in main loop of autovacuum launcher process.

BgWriterHibernate

Waiting in background writer process, hibernating.

BgWriterMain

Waiting in main loop of background writer process.

CheckpointerMain

Waiting in main loop of checkpointer process.

LogicalApplyMain

Waiting in main loop of logical replication apply process.

LogicalLauncherMain

Waiting in main loop of logical replication launcher process.

RecoveryWalStream

Waiting in main loop of startup process for WAL to arrive, during streaming recovery.

SysLoggerMain

Waiting in main loop of syslogger process.

WalReceiverMain

Waiting in main loop of WAL receiver process.

WalSenderMain

Waiting in main loop of WAL sender process.

WalWriterMain

Waiting in main loop of WAL writer process.

Table 28.6. Wait Events of Type BufferPin

BufferPin Wait Event

Description

BufferPin

Waiting to acquire an exclusive pin on a buffer.

Table 28.7. Wait Events of Type Client

Client Wait Event

Description

ClientRead

Waiting to read data from the client.

ClientWrite

Waiting to write data to the client.

GSSOpenServer

Waiting to read data from the client while establishing a GSSAPI session.

LibPQWalReceiverConnect

Waiting in WAL receiver to establish connection to remote server.

LibPQWalReceiverReceive

Waiting in WAL receiver to receive data from remote server.

SSLOpenServer

Waiting for SSL while attempting connection.

WalSenderWaitForWAL

Waiting for WAL to be flushed in WAL sender process.

WalSenderWriteData

Waiting for any activity when processing replies from WAL receiver in WAL sender process.

Table 28.8. Wait Events of Type Extension

Extension Wait Event

Description

Extension

Waiting in an extension.

Table 28.9. Wait Events of Type IO

IO Wait Event

Description

BaseBackupRead

Waiting for base backup to read from a file.

BufFileRead

Waiting for a read from a buffered file.

BufFileWrite

Waiting for a write to a buffered file.

BufFileTruncate

Waiting for a buffered file to be truncated.

ControlFileRead

Waiting for a read from the pg_control file.

ControlFileSync

Waiting for the pg_control file to reach durable storage.

ControlFileSyncUpdate

Waiting for an update to the pg_control file to reach durable storage.

ControlFileWrite

Waiting for a write to the pg_control file.

ControlFileWriteUpdate

Waiting for a write to update the pg_control file.

CopyFileRead

Waiting for a read during a file copy operation.

CopyFileWrite

Waiting for a write during a file copy operation.

DSMFillZeroWrite

Waiting to fill a dynamic shared memory backing file with zeroes.

DataFileExtend

Waiting for a relation data file to be extended.

DataFileFlush

Waiting for a relation data file to reach durable storage.

DataFileImmediateSync

Waiting for an immediate synchronization of a relation data file to durable storage.

DataFilePrefetch

Waiting for an asynchronous prefetch from a relation data file.

DataFileRead

Waiting for a read from a relation data file.

DataFileSync

Waiting for changes to a relation data file to reach durable storage.

DataFileTruncate

Waiting for a relation data file to be truncated.

DataFileWrite

Waiting for a write to a relation data file.

LockFileAddToDataDirRead

Waiting for a read while adding a line to the data directory lock file.

LockFileAddToDataDirSync

Waiting for data to reach durable storage while adding a line to the data directory lock file.

LockFileAddToDataDirWrite

Waiting for a write while adding a line to the data directory lock file.

LockFileCreateRead

Waiting to read while creating the data directory lock file.

LockFileCreateSync

Waiting for data to reach durable storage while creating the data directory lock file.

LockFileCreateWrite

Waiting for a write while creating the data directory lock file.

LockFileReCheckDataDirRead

Waiting for a read during recheck of the data directory lock file.

LogicalRewriteCheckpointSync

Waiting for logical rewrite mappings to reach durable storage during a checkpoint.

LogicalRewriteMappingSync

Waiting for mapping data to reach durable storage during a logical rewrite.

LogicalRewriteMappingWrite

Waiting for a write of mapping data during a logical rewrite.

LogicalRewriteSync

Waiting for logical rewrite mappings to reach durable storage.

LogicalRewriteTruncate

Waiting for truncate of mapping data during a logical rewrite.

LogicalRewriteWrite

Waiting for a write of logical rewrite mappings.

RelationMapRead

Waiting for a read of the relation map file.

RelationMapSync

Waiting for the relation map file to reach durable storage.

RelationMapWrite

Waiting for a write to the relation map file.

ReorderBufferRead

Waiting for a read during reorder buffer management.

ReorderBufferWrite

Waiting for a write during reorder buffer management.

ReorderLogicalMappingRead

Waiting for a read of a logical mapping during reorder buffer management.

ReplicationSlotRead

Waiting for a read from a replication slot control file.

ReplicationSlotRestoreSync

Waiting for a replication slot control file to reach durable storage while restoring it to memory.

ReplicationSlotSync

Waiting for a replication slot control file to reach durable storage.

ReplicationSlotWrite

Waiting for a write to a replication slot control file.

SLRUFlushSync

Waiting for SLRU data to reach durable storage during a checkpoint or database shutdown.

SLRURead

Waiting for a read of an SLRU page.

SLRUSync

Waiting for SLRU data to reach durable storage following a page write.

SLRUWrite

Waiting for a write of an SLRU page.

SnapbuildRead

Waiting for a read of a serialized historical catalog snapshot.

SnapbuildSync

Waiting for a serialized historical catalog snapshot to reach durable storage.

SnapbuildWrite

Waiting for a write of a serialized historical catalog snapshot.

TimelineHistoryFileSync

Waiting for a timeline history file received via streaming replication to reach durable storage.

TimelineHistoryFileWrite

Waiting for a write of a timeline history file received via streaming replication.

TimelineHistoryRead

Waiting for a read of a timeline history file.

TimelineHistorySync

Waiting for a newly created timeline history file to reach durable storage.

TimelineHistoryWrite

Waiting for a write of a newly created timeline history file.

TwophaseFileRead

Waiting for a read of a two phase state file.

TwophaseFileSync

Waiting for a two phase state file to reach durable storage.

TwophaseFileWrite

Waiting for a write of a two phase state file.

VersionFileWrite

Waiting for the version file to be written while creating a database.

WALBootstrapSync

Waiting for WAL to reach durable storage during bootstrapping.

WALBootstrapWrite

Waiting for a write of a WAL page during bootstrapping.

WALCopyRead

Waiting for a read when creating a new WAL segment by copying an existing one.

WALCopySync

Waiting for a new WAL segment created by copying an existing one to reach durable storage.

WALCopyWrite

Waiting for a write when creating a new WAL segment by copying an existing one.

WALInitSync

Waiting for a newly initialized WAL file to reach durable storage.

WALInitWrite

Waiting for a write while initializing a new WAL file.

WALRead

Waiting for a read from a WAL file.

WALSenderTimelineHistoryRead

Waiting for a read from a timeline history file during a walsender timeline command.

WALSync

Waiting for a WAL file to reach durable storage.

WALSyncMethodAssign

Waiting for data to reach durable storage while assigning a new WAL sync method.

WALWrite

Waiting for a write to a WAL file.

Table 28.10. Wait Events of Type IPC

IPC Wait Event

Description

AppendReady

Waiting for subplan nodes of an Append plan node to be ready.

ArchiveCleanupCommand

Waiting for archive_cleanup_command to complete.

ArchiveCommand

Waiting for archive_command to complete.

BackendTermination

Waiting for the termination of another backend.

BackupWaitWalArchive

Waiting for WAL files required for a backup to be successfully archived.

BgWorkerShutdown

Waiting for background worker to shut down.

BgWorkerStartup

Waiting for background worker to start up.

BtreePage

Waiting for the page number needed to continue a parallel B-tree scan to become available.

BufferIO

Waiting for buffer I/O to complete.

CheckpointDone

Waiting for a checkpoint to complete.

CheckpointStart

Waiting for a checkpoint to start.

ExecuteGather

Waiting for activity from a child process while executing a Gather plan node.

HashBatchAllocate

Waiting for an elected Parallel Hash participant to allocate a hash table.

HashBatchElect

Waiting to elect a Parallel Hash participant to allocate a hash table.

HashBatchLoad

Waiting for other Parallel Hash participants to finish loading a hash table.

HashBuildAllocate

Waiting for an elected Parallel Hash participant to allocate the initial hash table.

HashBuildElect

Waiting to elect a Parallel Hash participant to allocate the initial hash table.

HashBuildHashInner

Waiting for other Parallel Hash participants to finish hashing the inner relation.

HashBuildHashOuter

Waiting for other Parallel Hash participants to finish partitioning the outer relation.

HashGrowBatchesAllocate

Waiting for an elected Parallel Hash participant to allocate more batches.

HashGrowBatchesDecide

Waiting to elect a Parallel Hash participant to decide on future batch growth.

HashGrowBatchesElect

Waiting to elect a Parallel Hash participant to allocate more batches.

HashGrowBatchesFinish

Waiting for an elected Parallel Hash participant to decide on future batch growth.

HashGrowBatchesRepartition

Waiting for other Parallel Hash participants to finish repartitioning.

HashGrowBucketsAllocate

Waiting for an elected Parallel Hash participant to finish allocating more buckets.

HashGrowBucketsElect

Waiting to elect a Parallel Hash participant to allocate more buckets.

HashGrowBucketsReinsert

Waiting for other Parallel Hash participants to finish inserting tuples into new buckets.

LogicalSyncData

Waiting for a logical replication remote server to send data for initial table synchronization.

LogicalSyncStateChange

Waiting for a logical replication remote server to change state.

MessageQueueInternal

Waiting for another process to be attached to a shared message queue.

MessageQueuePutMessage

Waiting to write a protocol message to a shared message queue.

MessageQueueReceive

Waiting to receive bytes from a shared message queue.

MessageQueueSend

Waiting to send bytes to a shared message queue.

ParallelBitmapScan

Waiting for parallel bitmap scan to become initialized.

ParallelCreateIndexScan

Waiting for parallel CREATE INDEX workers to finish heap scan.

ParallelFinish

Waiting for parallel workers to finish computing.

ProcArrayGroupUpdate

Waiting for the group leader to clear the transaction ID at end of a parallel operation.

ProcSignalBarrier

Waiting for a barrier event to be processed by all backends.

Promote

Waiting for standby promotion.

RecoveryConflictSnapshot

Waiting for recovery conflict resolution for a vacuum cleanup.

RecoveryConflictTablespace

Waiting for recovery conflict resolution for dropping a tablespace.

RecoveryEndCommand

Waiting for recovery_end_command to complete.

RecoveryPause

Waiting for recovery to be resumed.

ReplicationOriginDrop

Waiting for a replication origin to become inactive so it can be dropped.

ReplicationSlotDrop

Waiting for a replication slot to become inactive so it can be dropped.

RestoreCommand

Waiting for restore_command to complete.

SafeSnapshot

Waiting to obtain a valid snapshot for a READ ONLY DEFERRABLE transaction.

SyncRep

Waiting for confirmation from a remote server during synchronous replication.

WalReceiverExit

Waiting for the WAL receiver to exit.

WalReceiverWaitStart

Waiting for startup process to send initial data for streaming replication.

XactGroupUpdate

Waiting for the group leader to update transaction status at end of a parallel operation.

Table 28.11. Wait Events of Type Lock

Lock Wait Event

Description

advisory

Waiting to acquire an advisory user lock.

extend

Waiting to extend a relation.

frozenid

Waiting to update pg_database.datfrozenxid and pg_database.datminmxid.

object

Waiting to acquire a lock on a non-relation database object.

page

Waiting to acquire a lock on a page of a relation.

relation

Waiting to acquire a lock on a relation.

spectoken

Waiting to acquire a speculative insertion lock.

transactionid

Waiting for a transaction to finish.

tuple

Waiting to acquire a lock on a tuple.

userlock

Waiting to acquire a user lock.

virtualxid

Waiting to acquire a virtual transaction ID lock.

Table 28.12. Wait Events of Type LWLock

LWLock Wait Event

Description

AddinShmemInit

Waiting to manage an extension's space allocation in shared memory.

AutoFile

Waiting to update the postgresql.auto.conf file.

Autovacuum

Waiting to read or update the current state of autovacuum workers.

AutovacuumSchedule

Waiting to ensure that a table selected for autovacuum still needs vacuuming.

BackgroundWorker

Waiting to read or update background worker state.

BtreeVacuum

Waiting to read or update vacuum-related information for a B-tree index.

BufferContent

Waiting to access a data page in memory.

BufferMapping

Waiting to associate a data block with a buffer in the buffer pool.

CheckpointerComm

Waiting to manage fsync requests.

CommitTs

Waiting to read or update the last value set for a transaction commit timestamp.

CommitTsBuffer

Waiting for I/O on a commit timestamp SLRU buffer.

CommitTsSLRU

Waiting to access the commit timestamp SLRU cache.

ControlFile

Waiting to read or update the pg_control file or create a new WAL file.

DynamicSharedMemoryControl

Waiting to read or update dynamic shared memory allocation information.

LockFastPath

Waiting to read or update a process' fast-path lock information.

LockManager

Waiting to read or update information about “heavyweight” locks.

LogicalRepWorker

Waiting to read or update the state of logical replication workers.

MultiXactGen

Waiting to read or update shared multixact state.

MultiXactMemberBuffer

Waiting for I/O on a multixact member SLRU buffer.

MultiXactMemberSLRU

Waiting to access the multixact member SLRU cache.

MultiXactOffsetBuffer

Waiting for I/O on a multixact offset SLRU buffer.

MultiXactOffsetSLRU

Waiting to access the multixact offset SLRU cache.

MultiXactTruncation

Waiting to read or truncate multixact information.

NotifyBuffer

Waiting for I/O on a NOTIFY message SLRU buffer.

NotifyQueue

Waiting to read or update NOTIFY messages.

NotifyQueueTail

Waiting to update limit on NOTIFY message storage.

NotifySLRU

Waiting to access the NOTIFY message SLRU cache.

OidGen

Waiting to allocate a new OID.

OldSnapshotTimeMap

Waiting to read or update old snapshot control information.

ParallelAppend

Waiting to choose the next subplan during Parallel Append plan execution.

ParallelHashJoin

Waiting to synchronize workers during Parallel Hash Join plan execution.

ParallelQueryDSA

Waiting for parallel query dynamic shared memory allocation.

PerSessionDSA

Waiting for parallel query dynamic shared memory allocation.

PerSessionRecordType

Waiting to access a parallel query's information about composite types.

PerSessionRecordTypmod

Waiting to access a parallel query's information about type modifiers that identify anonymous record types.

PerXactPredicateList

Waiting to access the list of predicate locks held by the current serializable transaction during a parallel query.

PredicateLockManager

Waiting to access predicate lock information used by serializable transactions.

ProcArray

Waiting to access the shared per-process data structures (typically, to get a snapshot or report a session's transaction ID).

RelationMapping

Waiting to read or update a pg_filenode.map file (used to track the filenode assignments of certain system catalogs).

RelCacheInit

Waiting to read or update a pg_internal.init relation cache initialization file.

ReplicationOrigin

Waiting to create, drop or use a replication origin.

ReplicationOriginState

Waiting to read or update the progress of one replication origin.

ReplicationSlotAllocation

Waiting to allocate or free a replication slot.

ReplicationSlotControl

Waiting to read or update replication slot state.

ReplicationSlotIO

Waiting for I/O on a replication slot.

SerialBuffer

Waiting for I/O on a serializable transaction conflict SLRU buffer.

SerializableFinishedList

Waiting to access the list of finished serializable transactions.

SerializablePredicateList

Waiting to access the list of predicate locks held by serializable transactions.

PgStatsDSA

Waiting for stats dynamic shared memory allocator access

PgStatsHash

Waiting for stats shared memory hash table access

PgStatsData

Waiting for shared memory stats data access

SerializableXactHash

Waiting to read or update information about serializable transactions.

SerialSLRU

Waiting to access the serializable transaction conflict SLRU cache.

SharedTidBitmap

Waiting to access a shared TID bitmap during a parallel bitmap index scan.

SharedTupleStore

Waiting to access a shared tuple store during parallel query.

ShmemIndex

Waiting to find or allocate space in shared memory.

SInvalRead

Waiting to retrieve messages from the shared catalog invalidation queue.

SInvalWrite

Waiting to add a message to the shared catalog invalidation queue.

SubtransBuffer

Waiting for I/O on a sub-transaction SLRU buffer.

SubtransSLRU

Waiting to access the sub-transaction SLRU cache.

SyncRep

Waiting to read or update information about the state of synchronous replication.

SyncScan

Waiting to select the starting location of a synchronized table scan.

TablespaceCreate

Waiting to create or drop a tablespace.

TwoPhaseState

Waiting to read or update the state of prepared transactions.

WALBufMapping

Waiting to replace a page in WAL buffers.

WALInsert

Waiting to insert WAL data into a memory buffer.

WALWrite

Waiting for WAL buffers to be written to disk.

WrapLimitsVacuum

Waiting to update limits on transaction id and multixact consumption.

XactBuffer

Waiting for I/O on a transaction status SLRU buffer.

XactSLRU

Waiting to access the transaction status SLRU cache.

XactTruncation

Waiting to execute pg_xact_status or update the oldest transaction ID available to it.

XidGen

Waiting to allocate a new transaction ID.

Note

Extensions can add LWLock types to the list shown in Table 28.12. In some cases, the name assigned by an extension will not be available in all server processes; so an LWLock wait event might be reported as just “extension” rather than the extension-assigned name.

Table 28.13. Wait Events of Type Timeout

Timeout Wait Event

Description

BaseBackupThrottle

Waiting during base backup when throttling activity.

CheckpointWriteDelay

Waiting between writes while performing a checkpoint.

PgSleep

Waiting due to a call to pg_sleep or a sibling function.

RecoveryApplyDelay

Waiting to apply WAL during recovery because of a delay setting.

RecoveryRetrieveRetryInterval

Waiting during recovery when WAL data is not available from any source (pg_wal, archive or stream).

RegisterSyncRequest

Waiting while sending synchronization requests to the checkpointer, because the request queue is full.

VacuumDelay

Waiting in a cost-based vacuum delay point.

VacuumTruncate

Waiting to acquire an exclusive lock to truncate off any empty pages at the end of a table vacuumed.

Here is an example of how wait events can be viewed:

SELECT pid, wait_event_type, wait_event FROM pg_stat_activity WHERE wait_event is NOT NULL;
 pid  | wait_event_type | wait_event
------+-----------------+------------
 2540 | Lock            | relation
 6644 | LWLock          | ProcArray
(2 rows)

28.2.4. pg_stat_replication

The pg_stat_replication view will contain one row per WAL sender process, showing statistics about replication to that sender's connected standby server. Only directly connected standbys are listed; no information is available about downstream standby servers.

Table 28.14. pg_stat_replication View

Column Type

Description

pid integer

Process ID of a WAL sender process

usesysid oid

OID of the user logged into this WAL sender process

usename name

Name of the user logged into this WAL sender process

application_name text

Name of the application that is connected to this WAL sender

client_addr inet

IP address of the client connected to this